Nutritional Therapy Research

Featured Research

Crohn's Disease Exclusion Diet Plus Partial Enteral Nutrition Induces Sustained Remission in a Randomized Controlled Trial (CDED, PEN)

Summary Excerpt: CDED plus PEN was better tolerated than EEN in children with mild to moderate CD. Both diets were effective in inducing remission by week 6. The combination CDED plus PEN induced sustained remission in a significantly higher proportion of patients than EEN, and produced changes in the fecal microbiome associated with remission. These data support use of CDED plus PEN to induce remission in children with CD.

Gastroenterology. 2019 Aug;157(2):440-450.e8. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.021. Epub 2019 Jun 4
Levine A et al

Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (AIP)

Summary Excerpt: Dietary elimination can improve symptoms and endoscopic inflammation in patients with IBD. Randomized controlled trials are warranted.

Inflamm Bowel Dis , 23 (11), 2054-2060 Nov 2017
Konijeti GG et al

An Anti-Inflammatory Diet as Treatment for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a Case Series Report (IBD-AID)

Summary Excerpt: This case series indicates potential for the IBD-AID as an adjunct dietary therapy for the treatment of IBD. A randomized clinical trial is warranted.

Nutr J. 2014 Jan 16;13:5. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-5
Olendzki B et al

Nutritional Therapy in Pediatric Crohn Disease: the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. (SCD)

Summary Excerpt: This chart review suggests that the SCD and other low complex carbohydrate diets may be possible therapeutic options for pediatric Crohn disease. Further prospective studies are required to fully assess the safety and efficacy of the SCD, or any other low complex SCDs in pediatric patients with Crohn disease.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Jan;58(1):87-91. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000103.
Suskind DL et al

Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Provides an Effective Bridge to Safer Interval Elective Surgery for Adults With Crohn's Disease (EEN)

Summary Excerpt: Exclusive enteral nutrition frequently down-stages the need for surgery in patients presenting with stricturing or penetrating complications of Crohn's disease; it is associated with a reduction in systemic inflammation, operative times and the incidence of post-operative abscess or anastomotic leak.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther , 45 (5), 660-669 Mar 2017
Heerasing N et al

Dietary Therapy With the Crohn's Disease Exclusion Diet Is a Successful Strategy for Induction of Remission in Children and Adults Failing Biological Therapy (CDED)

Summary Excerpt: Dietary treatment combining PEN with the CDED may be a useful salvage regimen for patients failing biological therapy despite dose escalation.

J Crohns Colitis , 11 (10), 1205-1212 2017 Oct 1
Sigall-Boneh RS et al

Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Therapy in Paediatric Crohn's Disease Results in Long-term Avoidance of Corticosteroids: Results of a Propensity-score Matched Cohort Analysis (EEN)

Summary Excerpt: These findings suggest that EEN induction therapy is more effective in achieving early remission and is associated with long-term steroid avoidance without increased use of biologics or need for surgery.

J Crohns Colitis , 11 (9), 1063-1070 2017 Sep 1
Connors J et al

Polymeric Diet Alone Versus Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Active Pediatric Crohn's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Open-Label Trial (EEN)

Summary Excerpt: In children with active and recently diagnosed CD, a short course of polymeric diet is more effective than corticosteroids in inducing healing of gut inflammatory lesions.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol , 4 (6), 744-53 Jun 2006
Borrelli O et al

The Specific Carbohydrate Diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case Series (SCD)

Summary Excerpt: Our survey results suggest that SCD can potentially be an effective tool in the management of some patients with IBD and specifically in patients with colonic and ileocolonic CD who made up the majority of our study group. A highly educated group of patients follow the SCD; all but one of the adults in our study had a college or graduate degree. Our results also suggest that in some patients with moderate to severe disease who follow this diet, discontinuation of immunosuppressive agents has been feasible.

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015 Aug;115(8):1226-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2015.04.016
Kakodkar S et al

Date Title Diets Authors Summary Excerpt Citation
May 2020 Multidimensional Impact of Mediterranean Diet on IBD Patients MD Chicco F et al A significant reduction of malnutrition-related parameters and liver steatosis was observed in both CD and UC patients after short-term dietary intervention based on the adoption of Md, and this was associated with a spontaneous improvement of disease activity and inflammatory markers. Inflamm Bowel Dis . 2020 May 22;izaa097. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izaa097. Online ahead of print.
Nov 2017 Nutritional Adequacy of the Specific Carbohydrate Diet in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease SCD Braly K et al Nutrient intake of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients on the SCD was adequate when compared with a healthy peer reference population, but adequacy was variable when compared with the dietary recommended intakes. Close monitoring with a multidisciplinary team for patients using the SCD as an alternative or adjunct therapy is recommend to ensure positive outcomes for overall patient health. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Nov;65(5):533-538. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001613.
Jan 2014 Nutritional Therapy in Pediatric Crohn Disease: the Specific Carbohydrate Diet. SCD Suskind DL et al This chart review suggests that the SCD and other low complex carbohydrate diets may be possible therapeutic options for pediatric Crohn disease. Further prospective studies are required to fully assess the safety and efficacy of the SCD, or any other low complex SCDs in pediatric patients with Crohn disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Jan;58(1):87-91. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000103.
Mar 2020 Partial Enteral Nutrition Induces Clinical and Endoscopic Remission in Active Pediatric Crohn's Disease: Results of a Prospective Cohort Study PEN Urlep D et al The results of our prospective pilot study suggest that PEN, allowing one meal from AID, could be as effective as EEN in inducing clinical and endoscopic remission in children with active CD. However, larger randomized controlled studies are warranted to confirm our findings. Eur J Pediatr . 2020 Mar;179(3):431-438. doi: 10.1007/s00431-019-03520-7. Epub 2019 Nov 28.
Aug 2014 Partial Enteral Nutrition With a Crohn's Disease Exclusion Diet Is Effective for Induction of Remission in Children and Young Adults With Crohn's Disease CDED, PEN Sigall-Boneh R et al Dietary therapy involving PEN with an exclusion diet seems to lead to high remission rates in early mild-to-moderate luminal Crohn's disease in children and young adults. Inflamm Bowel Dis , 20 (8), 1353-60 Aug 2014
Nov 2016 Patients Perceive Clinical Benefit with the Specific Carbohydrate Diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease SCD Suskind DL et al Individuals perceived clinical improvement on the SCD. Four percent reported clinical remission prior to the SCD, while 33 % reported remission at 2 months after initiation of the SCD, and 42 % at both 6 and 12 months. For those reporting clinical remission, 13 % reported time to achieve remission of less than 2 weeks, 17 % reported 2 weeks to a month, 36 % reported 1-3 months, and 34 % reported greater than 3 months. For individuals who reported reaching remission, 47 % of individuals reported associated improvement in abnormal laboratory values. Dig Dis Sci. 2016 Nov;61(11):3255-3260. Epub 2016 Sep 16
Jun 2006 Polymeric Diet Alone Versus Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Active Pediatric Crohn's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Open-Label Trial EEN Borrelli O et al In children with active and recently diagnosed CD, a short course of polymeric diet is more effective than corticosteroids in inducing healing of gut inflammatory lesions. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol , 4 (6), 744-53 Jun 2006
Jan 2021 Randomised Clinical Trial: Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Versus Standard of Care for Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis EEN Sahu P et al Patients on EEN had a shorter hospital stay [median (range) 10 (8-17) vs 13 (8-24) days; P = 0.04], higher day 7 albumin level (34 ± 4 vs 29 ± 3 g/L, P < 0.01), greater reduction in serum C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin levels (both P = 0.04) and a lower composite outcome of colectomy/hospitalisation at 6 months (16% vs 39%; P = 0.045) compared to SOC. Aliment Pharmacol Ther . 2021 Jan 13. doi: 10.1111/apt.16249
Apr 2019 Relapse Prevention by Plant-Based Diet Incorporated into Induction Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis: A Single-Group Trial SVD Chiba M et al Relapse rates in UC after induction therapy with PBD were far lower than those previously reported with conventional therapy. Adherence to PBD was significantly higher than baseline even at 6-year follow-up. We conclude PBD is effective for preventing UC relapse. Perm J . 2019;23:18-220. doi: 10.7812/TPP/18-220.
Aug 2015 Resolution of Severe Ulcerative Colitis with the Specific Carbohydrate Diet SCD Khandalavala BN and Nirmalraj MC Successful use of the SCD in children with UC has been documented. We describe previously unreported, highly beneficial results with both symptomatic and clinical improvement and complete remission of UC in an adult female with the SCD. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2015 Aug 7;9(2):291-5. doi: 10.1159/000438745. eCollection 2015 May-Aug
Feb 2016 Response to Strict and Liberalized Specific Carbohydrate Diet in Pediatric Crohn's Disease SCD Burgis JC et al Disease control may be attainable with the SCD in pediatric CD. Further studies are needed to assess adherence, impact on mucosal healing and growth. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Feb 14;22(6):2111-7. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i6.2111.
Apr 2016 Specific Carbohydrate Diet for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Clinical Practice within an Academic IBD Center SCD Obih C et al This retrospective review provides evidence that the SCD can be integrated into a tertiary care center and may improve clinical and laboratory parameters for pediatric patients with nonstructuring, nonpenetrating CD as well as UC. Further prospective studies are needed to fully assess the safety and efficacy of the SCD in pediatric patients with IBD. Nutrition. 2016 Apr;32(4):418-25. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.08.025. Epub 2015 Nov 30.