Overview of Therapeutic Diets


Jump to: Introduction | Food Table | Food Table Overview | Characteristics of the Diets

There are a growing number of therapeutic diets available to patients with IBD. Many share common characteristics, but there are also clear distinctions. You should work with your medical team to determine which diet is the best fit for you, considering your current medical condition and lifestyle. The following information may help differentiate the diets so you can make an informed decision in conjunction with your medical team.

Comparing and Contrasting Therapeutic Diets

While each of the therapeutic diets are unique in their approach, all of the therapeutic diets presented here have certain underlying principles in common. They all seek to eliminate food items that have been shown to be harmful in general (eg, processed foods and additives) as well to eliminate, restrict, or limit food items with potentially damaging effects in IBD (eg, gluten, sugar, and/or dairy). At the same time, they all strive to increase the quantity and variety of beneficial fruits and vegetables and focus on generally healthy whole foods.

The International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD) has recently provided recommendations regarding specific dietary components, food groups, and food additives that may be prudent to increase or decrease in the diet of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases to control and prevent relapse. This consensus may provide additional perspective when reviewing the food categories contained in these charts.

These tables are provided as a simplistic overview of the basic requirements of the diets and are intended to illustrate the similarities and differences between the diets. They offer a bird's eye view of restricted and allowed foods. They are not an all-inclusive list of the allowed and restricted foods, nor do they define all the rules of each diet. Thus, they should NOT be used as a guide to following any of the diets. When a diet is chosen, patients should work with a dietitian to implement the diets and properly progress through the phases/stages, referring to the documentation provided by the diet creators.

Stages/Phases Used in the Tables

All of the diets provide some guidance, if not official stages/phases, for introducing foods when beginning. Required adherence to therapeutic diets is generally more strict than most traditional diets, which tend to allow for deviation in moderation. That said, all of the diets do allow for testing other foods to some degree, either via a compliance goal or via reintroductions after sustained remission, noting that such additions are only incorporated into the diet if tolerated and may need to be consumed in moderation. Adding foods outside the allowed parameters of the diet may or may not be successful and, for some diets, is not recommended even if allowed.

With some exceptions as noted below, the Food Table is based on the last and most inclusive phase or stage of the diet (most foods allowed) that does not involve adding back in random tolerated food choices. Remember, when beginning a therapeutic diet, if stages/phases are recommended or required, all of the potentially allowed items may not be available at once. The phase/stage presented for each diet is as follows:

SCD and mSCD

The final stage of SCD and mSCD are described in the table. While SCD does not have official stages (it does have an introductory diet to last no more than 5 days and a short list of advanced foods) , the stages described on pecanbread.com are often adopted by patients with symptoms and active disease. These stages are not part of the official diet but can be used as a guide when food introduction proves difficult. Both SCD and mSCD allow for introduction of other healthy foods outside the normal parameters of the diet after sustained remission (generally recommended to wait until 1 or 2 years of sustained remission). Because these food additions could be anything tolerated by the patient, they are not included in the food table. Many recommend sticking with the diet as written and not deviating outside the defined parameters, so addition of foods should be considered carefully.

IBD-AID

The IBD-AID defines three phases based on the level of symptoms present and it is extremely important to begin the diet at the proper phase. The table represents the foods allowed in the third and final phase of the diet, intended for those in remission. The IBD-AID aims for 80% compliance or above, noting that better results may come with better compliance. Any foods added within the 20% noncompliance buffer are not included in the table.

AIP

The AIP is a little different from the other diets. The AIP begins with a restrictive Elimination Phase, which must be followed for a minimum of 30 days, but may require longer use. It then shifts to a Reintroduction Phase in which patients test adding back in other foods. In the Maintenance Phase, the foods that were tolerated in the Reintroduction Phase are incorporated back into the diet. Unlike some other therapeutic diets in which reintroductions are de-emphasized or cautioned against, AIP emphasizes and encourages the adding back in of tolerated foods to achieve healthy diversity. Our table represents the Elimination Phase of AIP, which is actually the first and most restrictive phase of the diet, and not the most inclusive phase as with most of the other diets. This was done because the Elimination Phase is the only phase to define specific foods as being allowed and not allowed. It is important to note that while AIP may look very restrictive as defined in the table, the actual diet used in Maintenance Phase likely will include more diversity than suggested in the table, but that diversity will be highly individualized.

CDED

The CDED is managed a little differently from the other diets. The CDED is divided into three phases. The first two 6-week phases are grouped together as the Induction Phase, which is used for inducing remission. The first six-week phase of the Induction Phase limits insoluble fiber to prevent bowel obstructions. The second 6-week phase adds back in many of those vegetables by week 10. The Induction Phase is the most important phase of the diet and is required for efficacy. The Maintenance Phase is used after remission is achieved and is intended to sustain that remission. However, the principles of the diet are best represented by the Induction Phase, with the Maintenance Phase opened up to include some foods not recommended in order to promote better long-term compliance if necessary. The published studies to date generally look at the Induction Phase, so the scientific evidence is strongest at this time for the Induction Phase and still in progress for the Maintenance Phase. However, a patient may like to know what the diet might look like long term, so it was decided that the most complete picture would be provided by showing data for both the Induction Phase and the Maintenance Phase separately. The Maintenance Phase requires five contiguous days following the diet as written, then allows for a maximum of two contiguous days (generally weekends) that allow two free meals per day (maximum of four free meals per week), excluding only hot dogs, sausages, soft drinks, luncheon meats, bacon, and frozen dough from those free meals. Those free meals are not included in the table.


Jump to: Introduction | Food Table | Food Table Overview | Characteristics of the Diets

Food Table

Diets are Similar with Regard to the Following Foods:
Allowed
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Fish

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Weeks 1-6: 1 portion lean fish per week
After week 6: 1 can tuna per week

One portion of lean fish or other seafood per week, 1 can tuna per week

Red Meat (not processed)

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed, leaner cuts emphasized

Allowed. Grass-fed organ meats encouraged

1 portion of lean steak per week after week 6 (not recommended)

1 portion of lean steak per week only

Honey

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed, local organic encouraged

Allowed

Max 3 TBSP per day

Max 3 TBSP per day (no limit on weekends)

Allowed or Selectively Allowed
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Poultry

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed, no skin

Allowed

Fresh chicken breast only (mandatory)

Chicken allowed (no wings or skin)

Vegetables other than starchy vegetables and nightshades, which are listed separately

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Weeks 1-6: Cucumbers, carrot, spinach, lettuce allowed in limited quantities. Onion, garlic, ginger allowed.
Weeks 7-9: Add zucchini, mushrooms, broccoli, cauliflower
Weeks 10-12: All veggies allowed except kale, leeks, asparagus, and artichoke.

No Leeks, Celery, or Large Amounts of Kale

Fruits

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed in moderation (2-3 servings per day)

Weeks 1-6: Bananas, apples, avocado, strawberries, melon, orange juice in limited quantities, lemon juice (fresh squeezed) as a condiment allowed.
Weeks 7-10: Pears, peaches, kiwis, and blueberries are also allowed.
Weeks 11-12: Mangos, pineapples, and oranges are also allowed.

No persimmons, pomegranate, cactus fruit, passion fruit

Fats/Oils

Most Allowed; No soybean oil, limit processed oils like canola oil

Most Allowed; No soybean oil, limit processed oils like canola oil

Allowed: Limit oils high in omega-6 and saturated fats

Fats from grass-fed organic meats allowed, unrefined oils allowed; no seed oils, no processed vegetable oils

Only olive oil and canola oil allowed

Only olive oil and canola oil allowed

Exclude
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Processed Meat

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Artificial Sweeteners

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Processed Foods/Preservatives/Artificial Additives

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude or Restrict
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Grains other than wheat, corn, oats, and rice, which are listed separately

Exclude

Exclude

Barley is allowed if not celiac.

Exclude

Quinoa allowed after week 6

Allows quinoa

Dairy

Allows homemade 24-hour yogurt and cheeses aged 30 days or more

Allows homemade 24-hour yogurt and cheeses aged 30 days or more

Some allowed: Aged cheese, dry curd cottage cheese, cultured cottage cheese, plain kefir, plain yogurt

Exclude

Exclude

1 yogurt allowed per day (other dairy on weekends)

Sweeteners other than honey and artificial sweeteners, which are listed separately

Exclude

Maple syrup allowed

Exclude

Allows date sugar, maple syrup, maple sugar, molasses, evaporated cane juice, coconut sugar

Allows refined sugar (4 tsp per day max)

Allows refined sugar (4 tsp per day max; unlimited on weekends)

Alcohol

Some allowed: dry wine, vodka, gin, rye, Scotch, bourbon, whiskey

Some allowed: dry wine, vodka, gin, rye, Scotch, bourbon, whiskey

Some allowed on limited basis: dry wine, vodka, gin, rye, Scotch, bourbon, whiskey per patient tolerance

Exclude

Exclude

1 cup of wine or beer allowed on weekends

Emulsifiers

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude maltodextrin, carrageenan, polysorbate-80, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Some emulsifiers, such as guar gum, may be protective.

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Diets Differ for The Following Foods:
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Seafood other than fish, which is listed separately

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Excluded

1 portion of seafood or lean fish per week, 1 can tuna per week

Wheat/Gluten

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude wheat. Gluten in barley is allowed if not celiac. Gluten in rye is unknown.

Exclude

1 slice whole grain bread allowed per day after week 6

2 slices whole grain bread allowed per day (1 cup cooked pasta may be substitued for bread twice per week)

Corn

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Allowed after week 10

Allowed

Oats

Exclude

Allowed (gluten-free oats only):
Per Day: Maximum of 2 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Per Week: Minimum of 3 servings and maximum of 6 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Serving Size: 1 cup

Allowed (gluten-free oats if celiac), steel cut and oat groats encouraged, longer cooking times and additional water may be required

Exclude

1/2 cup dry oatmeal per week allowed after week 6 (gluten-free oats preferred but not mandatory)

1/2 cup dry oatmeal allowed per week (gluten-free oats preferred but not mandatory)

Rice

Exclude

Allowed:
Per Day: Maximum of 2 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Per Week: Minimum of 3 servings and maximum of 6 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Serving Size: 1 cup

Organic rice allowed in limited amounts after 6 months and if health is stabilized

Exclude

Unlimited rice and rice flour or noodles are allowed

Unlimited rice and rice flour or noodles are allowed

Dried Legumes/Beans

Certain dried legumes allowed: Peanuts, navy beans, lima beans, black beans, lentils, split peas; soaking required

Certain dried legumes allowed: Peanuts, navy beans, lima beans, black beans, lentils, split peas; soaking required

Allowed, may need to vary texture and take digestive enzymes prior to consumption

Exclude

1/2 cup dry beans/legumes allowed per day after week 6

1 1/2 cup dry beans/legumes allowed per day

Fresh Legumes/beans (peas, green beans, etc)

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed, may need to vary texture and take digestive enzymes prior to consumption

Exclude: Peas and green beans are not allowed but are one of the first foods recommended for reintroduction.

Allowed after week 10

Allowed

Starchy Vegetables (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, turnips, parsnips, etc)

Exclude

Some allowed: Sweet potatoes, maybe white potatoes, organic preferred to avoid bud product:
Per Day: Maximum of 2 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Per Week: Minimum of 3 servings and maximum of 6 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Serving Size: 1 cup

Most Allowed: Exclude white potatoes

Allowed if not nightshades

Weeks 1-6: Potatoes only allowed
Weeks 7-9: Potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams allowed.
Weeks 10-12: Allowed

Allowed

Nightshades (tomatoes, tomatillos, white potatoes [not sweet potatoes], eggplant, peppers, goji berries, etc)

Most allowed: no white potatoes

Allowed

Allowed

Exclude

Weeks 1-6: Tomatoes and Potatoes allowed.
Weeks 7-9: Red Peppers also allowed.
Weeks 10-12: Allowed

Allowed

Nuts

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Exclude

8 almonds or walnuts allowed per day after week 6.

8 almonds or walnuts allowed per day

Seeds

Most allowed: no chia or flax

Most allowed: no chia or flax

Allowed

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Eggs

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed: encourage omega-3 eggs

Exclude

Allowed (mandatory: 2 per day)

Allowed

Cocoa

Exclude

Allowed (only 100% cocoa powder, not Dutch processed)

Allowed

Exclude

Exclude

Allowed

Coffee

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Exclude

Exclude

Allowed: Black coffee allowed (any coffee allowed on weekends)

Formula (PEN; eg, Boost®, Ensure®, Pediasure®, Modulen IBD®)

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude: encourage whole food smoothies and supplements

Exclude

Allowed (recommended)

Allowed

Food Table Organized By Food Type:
Seafood, Poultry, and Meat
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Fish

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Weeks 1-6: 1 portion lean fish per week
After week 6: 1 can tuna per week

One portion of lean fish or other seafood per week, 1 can tuna per week

Seafood other than fish, which is listed separately

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Excluded

1 portion of seafood or lean fish per week, 1 can tuna per week

Poultry

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed, no skin

Allowed

Fresh chicken breast only (mandatory)

Chicken allowed (no wings or skin)

Red Meat (not processed)

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed, leaner cuts emphasized

Allowed. Grass-fed organ meats encouraged

1 portion of lean steak per week after week 6 (not recommended)

1 portion of lean steak per week only

Processed Meat

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Grains
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Wheat/Gluten

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude wheat. Gluten in barley is allowed if not celiac. Gluten in rye is unknown.

Exclude

1 slice whole grain bread allowed per day after week 6

2 slices whole grain bread allowed per day (1 cup cooked pasta may be substitued for bread twice per week)

Corn

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Allowed after week 10

Allowed

Oats

Exclude

Allowed (gluten-free oats only):
Per Day: Maximum of 2 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Per Week: Minimum of 3 servings and maximum of 6 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Serving Size: 1 cup

Allowed (gluten-free oats if celiac), steel cut and oat groats encouraged, longer cooking times and additional water may be required

Exclude

1/2 cup dry oatmeal per week allowed after week 6 (gluten-free oats preferred but not mandatory)

1/2 cup dry oatmeal allowed per week (gluten-free oats preferred but not mandatory)

Rice

Exclude

Allowed:
Per Day: Maximum of 2 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Per Week: Minimum of 3 servings and maximum of 6 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Serving Size: 1 cup

Organic rice allowed in limited amounts after 6 months and if health is stabilized

Exclude

Unlimited rice and rice flour or noodles are allowed

Unlimited rice and rice flour or noodles are allowed

Grains other than wheat, corn, oats, and rice, which are listed separately

Exclude

Exclude

Barley is allowed if not celiac.

Exclude

Quinoa allowed after week 6

Allows quinoa

Vegetables, Legumes, and Fruits
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Dried Legumes/Beans

Certain dried legumes allowed: Peanuts, navy beans, lima beans, black beans, lentils, split peas; soaking required

Certain dried legumes allowed: Peanuts, navy beans, lima beans, black beans, lentils, split peas; soaking required

Allowed, may need to vary texture and take digestive enzymes prior to consumption

Exclude

1/2 cup dry beans/legumes allowed per day after week 6

1 1/2 cup dry beans/legumes allowed per day

Fresh Legumes/beans (peas, green beans, etc)

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed, may need to vary texture and take digestive enzymes prior to consumption

Exclude: Peas and green beans are not allowed but are one of the first foods recommended for reintroduction.

Allowed after week 10

Allowed

Starchy Vegetables (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, turnips, parsnips, etc)

Exclude

Some allowed: Sweet potatoes, maybe white potatoes, organic preferred to avoid bud product:
Per Day: Maximum of 2 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Per Week: Minimum of 3 servings and maximum of 6 servings of any combination of rice/oats/sweet potato
Serving Size: 1 cup

Most Allowed: Exclude white potatoes

Allowed if not nightshades

Weeks 1-6: Potatoes only allowed
Weeks 7-9: Potatoes, sweet potatoes, and yams allowed.
Weeks 10-12: Allowed

Allowed

Nightshades (tomatoes, tomatillos, white potatoes [not sweet potatoes], eggplant, peppers, goji berries, etc)

Most allowed: no white potatoes

Allowed

Allowed

Exclude

Weeks 1-6: Tomatoes and Potatoes allowed.
Weeks 7-9: Red Peppers also allowed.
Weeks 10-12: Allowed

Allowed

Vegetables other than starchy vegetables and nightshades, which are listed separately

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Weeks 1-6: Cucumbers, carrot, spinach, lettuce allowed in limited quantities. Onion, garlic, ginger allowed.
Weeks 7-9: Add zucchini, mushrooms, broccoli, cauliflower
Weeks 10-12: All veggies allowed except kale, leeks, asparagus, and artichoke.

No Leeks, Celery, or Large Amounts of Kale

Fruits

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed in moderation (2-3 servings per day)

Weeks 1-6: Bananas, apples, avocado, strawberries, melon, orange juice in limited quantities, lemon juice (fresh squeezed) as a condiment allowed.
Weeks 7-10: Pears, peaches, kiwis, and blueberries are also allowed.
Weeks 11-12: Mangos, pineapples, and oranges are also allowed.

No persimmons, pomegranate, cactus fruit, passion fruit

Dairy
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Dairy

Allows homemade 24-hour yogurt and cheeses aged 30 days or more

Allows homemade 24-hour yogurt and cheeses aged 30 days or more

Some allowed: Aged cheese, dry curd cottage cheese, cultured cottage cheese, plain kefir, plain yogurt

Exclude

Exclude

1 yogurt allowed per day (other dairy on weekends)

Nuts and Seeds
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Nuts

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Exclude

8 almonds or walnuts allowed per day after week 6.

8 almonds or walnuts allowed per day

Seeds

Most allowed: no chia or flax

Most allowed: no chia or flax

Allowed

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Sweeteners
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Honey

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed, local organic encouraged

Allowed

Max 3 TBSP per day

Max 3 TBSP per day (no limit on weekends)

Artificial Sweeteners

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Sweeteners other than honey and artificial sweeteners, which are listed separately

Exclude

Maple syrup allowed

Exclude

Allows date sugar, maple syrup, maple sugar, molasses, evaporated cane juice, coconut sugar

Allows refined sugar (4 tsp per day max)

Allows refined sugar (4 tsp per day max; unlimited on weekends)

Other
Food SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Processed Foods/Preservatives/Artificial Additives

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude

Eggs

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed: encourage omega-3 eggs

Exclude

Allowed (mandatory: 2 per day)

Allowed

Fats/Oils

Most Allowed; No soybean oil, limit processed oils like canola oil

Most Allowed; No soybean oil, limit processed oils like canola oil

Allowed: Limit oils high in omega-6 and saturated fats

Fats from grass-fed organic meats allowed, unrefined oils allowed; no seed oils, no processed vegetable oils

Only olive oil and canola oil allowed

Only olive oil and canola oil allowed

Cocoa

Exclude

Allowed (only 100% cocoa powder, not Dutch processed)

Allowed

Exclude

Exclude

Allowed

Coffee

Allowed

Allowed

Allowed

Exclude

Exclude

Allowed: Black coffee allowed (any coffee allowed on weekends)

Alcohol

Some allowed: dry wine, vodka, gin, rye, Scotch, bourbon, whiskey

Some allowed: dry wine, vodka, gin, rye, Scotch, bourbon, whiskey

Some allowed on limited basis: dry wine, vodka, gin, rye, Scotch, bourbon, whiskey per patient tolerance

Exclude

Exclude

1 cup of wine or beer allowed on weekends

Formula (PEN; eg, Boost®, Ensure®, Pediasure®, Modulen IBD®)

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude: encourage whole food smoothies and supplements

Exclude

Allowed (recommended)

Allowed

Emulsifiers

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude maltodextrin, carrageenan, polysorbate-80, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Some emulsifiers, such as guar gum, may be protective.

Exclude

Exclude

Exclude


Jump to: Introduction | Food Table | Food Table Overview | Characteristics of the Diets

Food Table Overview

OVERVIEW OF GENERALIZED SIMILARITIES (Some diets may be outliers in some categories):
Food TypeGeneral ConsensusDetails
Seafood/Poultry/Red Meat Allowed

Allowed on all the therapeutic diets. CDED does not recommend red meat, restricts the amounts of red meat and seafood, and limits poultry to chicken excluding skin, wings, and organ meat. IBD-AID suggests limiting saturated fats.

Vegetables (nonstarchy) Allowed

Allowed on all therapeutic diets. AIP excludes nightshades. CDED excludes a few specific vegetables.

Fruits Allowed

Allowed on all therapeutic diets. CDED excludes a few specific fruits.

Honey Allowed

Allowed on all diets. Limited to 3 TBSP per day on CDED.

Fresh Legumes Mostly Allowed

Allowed on all diets except AIP.

Eggs Mostly Allowed

Allowed on all diets except AIP.

Coffee Mostly Allowed

Allowed on all diets except AIP and the Induction Phase of CDED.

Dried Legumes Mixed

SCD and mSCD allow specific dried legumes (soaking required). IBD-AID allows dried legumes. AIP excludes them. CDED limits the quantity.

Vegetables (starchy) Mixed

CDED allows starchy vegetables, SCD excludes starchy vegetables, other diets restrict certain starchy vegetables.

Nuts Mixed

SCD, mSCD, and IBD-AID allow nuts (nut butters may be easier to digest in early stages/phases). CDED allows a limited amount of walnuts or almonds per day. AIP excludes nuts.

Seeds Mixed

IBD-AID allows seeds (may need to be pureed in phase I/II). SCD and mSCD do not allow flax or chia. Seeds are not allowed in AIP or CDED.

Cocoa Mixed

Cocoa (honey sweetened if sweetened) is allowed on mSCD and IBD-AID and the Maintenance Phase of CDED. It is excluded from SCD and AIP.

Grains Restricted

Wheat/gluten is excluded in all diets except CDED, which allows limited amounts of whole grain bread or pasta per day.

Corn is excluded in all diets except CDED, which allows after week 10.

Oats and Rice are mixed (mSCD, IBD-AID, and CDED allow oats; mSCD and CDED allow rice).

CDED allows Quinoa.

IBD-AID allows Barley if not celiac.

Other grains are not allowed.

Dairy Restricted

AIP and CDED Induction Phase exclude all dairy. CDED Maintenance Phase allows a limited amount of yogurt per week. SCD and mSCD allows aged cheese and 24-hour fermented yogurt. IBD-AID allows yogurt, kefir, aged cheese.

Sweeteners other than honey and artificial sweeteners Restricted

mSCD allows maple syrup. AIP allows date sugar, maple syrup, molasses, evaporated cane juice, and coconut sugar. CDED allows a very small amount of refined sugar.

Oils Restricted

SCD and mSCD exclude soybean oil. IBD-AID limits oils high in saturated fats. CDED allows only olive oil and canola oil. AIP does not allow seed oils or processed vegetable oils.

Alcohol Restricted

SCD, mSCD, and IBD-AID allow some forms of alcohol, as does CDED on weekends in its Maintenance Phase.

Processed Meat Excluded

All diets exclude processed meats.

Artificial Sweeteners Excluded

All diets exclude artificial sweeteners

Processed Foods/Additives/Preservatives Excluded

All diets exclude processed foods/additives/preservatives.


Jump to: Introduction | Food Table | Food Table Overview | Characteristics of the Diets

Characteristics of the Diets

Characteristic SCD - Final Stage mSCD - Final Stage IBD-AID - Final Phase AIP - Elimination Phase CDED - Induction Phase CDED - Maintenance Phase
Stages/Phases

Intro diet for up to 5 days. No other required stages, although some foods like beans/lentils are advanced. Pecanbread website has suggested stages for those wishing to follow them when symptomatic.

Intro diet for up to 5 days. Typically, strict SCD is done before modified SCD is attempted.

Three phases defined based on level of symptoms: Phase 1: Basics, Phase 2: Introduction of more foods/textures, Phase 3: Remission.

Elimination Phase (minimum of 30 days), Reintroduction Phase, and Maintenance Phase.

Induction Phase consists of two 6-week phases with a food-list associated with each phase. Induction Phase is followed by the Maintenance Phase.

Maintenance phase is the last phase of the diet and requires 5 contiguous days following the diet as defined, which then can be followed with a max of 2 contiguous days with 2 free meals per week. Free meals can deviate from the diet with some restrictions. Maintenance phase is preceded by the Induction Phase.

Allowed Deviation from Diet

100% strict for first year or two.

100% strict for first year or two

Diet aims for 80% compliance or above, but better results may come with better compliance.

100% strict for in the Elimination Phase, which lasts a few months or more as needed. Reintroduction Phase allows adding back of foods as tolerated.

100% strict in the Induction Phase.

In the Maintenance Phase, four free meals a week are allowed, in which other foods can be consumed (with some restrictions).

Limits Amounts of Foods

No

Yes for the new additions (sweet potatoes, rice, oats, cocoa, and maple syrup)

No

Yes for fruits

Yes

Yes

Mandatory Foods

No

No

IBD-AID Essential 8 - mandatory amounts of certain food types should be targeted per day.

No

Yes

No

Studied in Children/Adults

Both

Studies of mSCD in Children are still ongoing.

Adults

Adults

Both

Studies on Maintenance Phase are in progress.

Studied in Ulcerative Colitis (UC)/Crohn's Disease (CD)

Both

Studies of mSCD for both CD and UC are still ongoing.

Both

Both

CD only

Studies of Maintenance Phase in CD are still ongoing.

Length of Time in Use

Long Time

First described by Dr. Haas in 1924 and expanded and popularized by Elaine Gottschall for more common use in IBD.

First study published in 2014.

New

Still in ongoing study.

Relatively New

First study published in 2014, ongoing studies include one in pregnant women.

Relatively New

2010: AIP first appeared as a brief list of foods to avoid in addition to standard Paleo for autoimmune disease in the book The Paleo Solution by Robb Wolf and on the website The Paleo Diet by Loren Cordain, refined later by Sarah Ballantyne.

First study in IBD published in 2017.

Relatively New

First study published in 2014.

New

Studies on the Maintenance Phase are still ongoing.

Published Research SCD Research Studies on mSCD as it is defined above are still ongoing. IBD-AID Research AIP Research CDED Research Studies on the Maintenance Phase of CDED are still ongoing.